Do you wish to ace the IELTS with flying colours? Are you hoping to use this test to gain admission to some of the world’s most prestigious universities and institutions? If you answered yes, IELTS preparation is the key to unlocking the door to success. During your IELTS preparation, you should concentrate on each section of the exam.

The reading component of the IELTS exam is incredibly important since it allows you to achieve high scores. During your preparation, you must thoroughly rehearse the texts and learn to correctly answer questions based on the material.

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Caves Reading Answers

Write one word only below, to fill the blanks:

There are several …………….of caves with the most common and largest being located in limestone or marble. Coastal caves are created in cliffs usually by waves. In lava flows, the solidified outer crusts that remain once the molten core has drained away also form ………………… Limestone is to be found all over New Zealand, but not all of it contains caves. While many caves are known, there are large numbers that have yet to be uncovered. The main …………………for limestone caves are Te Kuiti Group rocks.

True or False:

New Zealand limestone dates back more than 450 million years.

White to yellow stalactites are more common than brown or red stalactites.

Stalagmites are never particularly big.

IELTS Reading Answers

Types Floor
Tunnels A
Areas E
Cracks True
Factures True
Passage Not Given

IELTS Reading Passage

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Caves are natural underground spaces commonly those into which man can enter. There are three major types: the most widespread and extensive are those developed in soluble rocks, usually limestone or marble, by underground movement of water; on the coast are those formed in cliffs generally by the concentrated pounding of waves along joints and zones of crushed rock; and a few caves are formed in lava flows, where the solidified outer crust is left after the molten core has drained away to form rough tunnels, like those on the small basalt volcanoes of Auckland.


Limestone of all ages, ranging from geologically recent times to more than 450 million years ago, is found in many parts of New Zealand, although it is not all cavernous.

Many caves have been discovered, but hundreds remain to be explored. The most notable limestone areas for caves are the many hundreds of square kilometres of Te Kuiti Group (Oligocene) rocks from Port Waikato south to Mokau and from the coast inland to the Waipa Valley – especially in the Waitomo district; and the Mount Arthur Marble (Upper Ordovician) of the mountains of northwest Nelson (fringed by thin bands of Oligocene limestone in the valleys and near the coast).


Sedimentary rocks (including limestone) are usually laid down in almost horizontal layers or beds which may be of any thickness, but most commonly of 5-7.5 cm. These beds may accumulate to a total thickness of about a hundred meters.

Pure limestone is brittle, and folding due to earth movements causes cracks along the partings, and joints at angles to them. Rainwater percolates down through the soil and the fractures in the underlying rocks to the water table, below which all cavities and pores are filled with water.

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This usually acidic water dissolves the limestone along the joints and, once a passage is opened, it is enlarged by the abrasive action of sand and pebbles carried by streams. The extensive solution takes place between the seasonal limits of the water table.

Erosion may continue to cut down into the floor, or silt and pebbles may build up floors and divert stream courses. Most caves still carry the stream that formed them. Caves in the softer, well-bedded Oligocene limestones are typically horizontal in development, often with passages on several levels, and frequently of considerable length. Gardner’s Gut, Waitomo, has two main levels and more than seven kilometres of passages.


Plans of caves show prominent features, such as long, narrow, straight passages following joint patterns as in Ruakuri, Waitomo, or several parallel straights oriented in one or more directions like Te Anaroa, Rockville.

Vertical cross-sections of cave passages may be tall and narrow following joints, as in Burr Cave, Waitomo; large and ragged in collapse chambers, like Hollow Hill, Waitomo (233m long, 59.4m wide, and 30.48m high); low and wide along bedding planes, as in Luckie Strike, Waitomo; or high vertical water-worn shafts, like Rangitaawa Shaft (91 m).

Waitomo Caves in the harder, massive Mount Arthur Marble (a metamorphosed limestone) are mainly vertical in development, many reaching several hundred meters, the deepest known being Harwood Hole, Takaka (370m).


The unique beauty of caves lies in the variety of mineral encrustations which are found sometimes completely covering walls, ceilings, and floors. Stalactites (Gk. stalks, dripping) is pendent growths of crystalline calcium carbonate (calcite) formed from solution by the deposition of minute quantities of calcite from percolating groundwater.

They are usually white to yellow, but occasionally are brown or red. Where water evaporates faster than it drips, long thin straws are formed which may reach the floor or thicken into columns. If the source of water moves across the ceiling, a thin drape, very like a stage curtain, is formed.


Helictites are stalactites that branch or curl. Stalagmites (Gk. stalagmites, that which dripped) are conical or gnarled floor growths formed by splashing if the water drips faster than it evaporates.

These may grow toward the ceiling to form columns of massive proportions. Where calcite is deposited by water spreading thinly over the walls or floor, flowstone is formed and pools of water may build up their edges to form narrow walls of brimstone.

Gypsum (calcium sulfate) is a white cave deposit of many crystal habits which are probably dependent on humidity. The most beautiful form is the gypsum flower which extrudes from a point on the cave wall in curling and diverging bundles of fibres like a lily or orchid.

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IELTS Exam Preparation

Many organisations offer official and unofficial practise tests, which you should utilise to prepare for the exam. There are a few things to consider before signing up for any platform.

To begin with, the difficulty level should be the same as what you would encounter on exam day. Second, tasks should be as close as possible to the real thing. If you feel that you need more practice, you can do it by reading independently.

Only You will not be helped by reading books, periodicals, or articles. Make your changes or have someone else review your work with you. If you’re having trouble understanding something, try watching an English film or listening to English-language music. Replay the areas that you don’t comprehend till you understand them.


As a result, you can use this passage and the questions that follow to prepare for the IELTS reading section. If you wish to perfect your preparation for this section, go to the IELTS Ninja website.

IELTS preparation necessitates moving in the right way with legitimate sources and accurate knowledge to perform well on the exam. The IELTS exam provides the best opportunity for candidates to meet their goals and gain admission to the best colleges in the world. If you’re studying for the IELTS, you should seek IELTS advice from professionals.

Professionals are available on the website to provide you with strength and preparation for your dreams. If you enjoyed this post and found it useful and instructive, you should visit the website to find additional content and relevant articles on many aspects of the IELTS exam to aid your IELTS preparation. With the correct platform, you’ll be able to reach for the stars.

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