Experts are predicting that the IELTS reading exam would be simple to moderately challenging in the month of April. Out of the three passages, examiners will find at least one or more to be mildly tedious and complicated. The IELTS reading time limit of 60 minutes must be spent skimming through three lengthy passages that are detailed, informative, and often analytical.

Here is a topic “Catastrophe Theory” to add up in your IELTS exam preparation

Catastrophe Theory IELTS Reading Answers

In the sections below, you will read two passages that are similar to the ones that are given in the IELTS reading exam. Start your IELTS exam preparation now.

IELTS Exam: Catastrophe Theory Sample 1

René Thom (1923- ) of France developed a statistical tool known as catastrophe theory in the 1960s. Thom applied his hypothesis to the analysis and estimation of systems causing abrupt changes. During the 1970s, his theories became popular with mathematicians and scientists from a number of fields. Nevertheless, catastrophe theory was occasionally generalised to regions beyond its influence, and as a result, it became somewhat debunked. Nature has two basic kinds of systems, according to scientists: constant and discontinuous. A constant phase is the rise in temperature of a gas as it is warmed. As one changing station at a steady rate (heat is applied to the gas), another variable changes at a consistent speed as well (the temperature of the gas rises). Continuous systems are relatively easy to forecast because they are “smooth.”

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Section B of the Passage: IELTS Exam

Calculus is a branch of calculus used to research continuous processes that was established more than 300 years earlier by Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716).

Discontinuous processes, on the other hand, are “abrupt” as opposed to smooth. A discontinuous mechanism will be an arched bridge to which more and more weight is applied. When the weight on the bridge is raised, no effect is seen at first—the bridge starts to bend almost ponderously. Nevertheless, at some stage, enough weight is applied to the bridge to cause it to collapse. A constant change in one variable (the sum of weight on the walkway) results in virtually no change in a two variables (the bridge’s form distorts slightly), accompanied by a sudden change to a somewhat different state (the bridge collapses).

Section C of the Passage: IELTS Exam

A tragedy is a drastic shift in a discontinuous phase. Catastrophes in mathematics can involve unexpected crises such as a bridge failure or a tsunami, but they can also include somewhat less drastic events such as water boiling. Water is a liquid as it is steadily heated from room temperature. As water approaches its boiling point, however, it abruptly changes state, from a liquid to a gas. To put it another way, a disaster has happened. The catastrophe set is the set of variables for which a catastrophe happens. There is only one element in the boiling water catastrophe, and the catastrophe set contains only a single temperature, 100°C. The majority of discontinuous systems, on the other hand, require more than one component, and the catastrophe collection can be very high.

Section D of the Passage: IELTS Exam

Since discontinuous processes entail abrupt changes, they are typically more difficult to forecast than continuous processes. René Thom developed a technique of analysing discontinuous systems known as catastrophe theory in the 1960s. Thom became interested in disasters in the hope of applying mathematics to the “imperfect” science of biology. (Because they mostly deal with discontinuous systems, biology and sociology are called inexact fields of science.) Systemic Stability and Morphogenesis, reported in 1972, and Catastrophe Concept in Biology, reported in 1979, laid out Thom’s hypotheses.

IELTS Exam: Catastrophe Theory Sample 2

According to reports, humanity has just had a decade to make the required improvements in the energy market to avert a global climatic disaster.

Much needs to improve in terms of market understanding, industry, and various social classes imposing policies and changing legal regulations. It is important for the state to improve co-financing of development projects in the field of alternative energy sources using public funds. Furthermore, companies must see this business. The production of green energy sources should be successful, and not because it is easier to devastate the natural world by mining minerals.

Section B of the Passage: IELTS Exam

It is inexpensive to run traditional energy-based on mineral combustion since this traditional energy and mining factory of hard and coal power, oil refinery industry, auto sector with passenger vehicles with combustion engines, and so on are not encumbered with the expenses of natural environment destruction, management of people suffering from poor air, pollution, and no harmful impacts of global warming. If the mining, oil, processing, and automobile sectors were to bear these costs, it would be unprofitable to devastate and contaminate the natural world. Then developing electricity and manufacturing dependent on clean energy sources will be more efficient. Electricity inventions date to almost a century. Electric vehicles should have been manufactured 100 years ago, but the oil industry has ruled out this idea of more sustainable production.

Section C of the Passage: IELTS Exam

As a result, archaic energy dependent on mineral combustion has been produced for over a century. During these 100 years, the average temperature of the Earth’s surface has increased by 1-degree ° C. According to specific science research, mankind only has 12 years to make the required improvements, such as switching electricity and manufacturing to green energy sources, converting the automobile industry to electromobility, improving the efficiency of stoves and household ovens, and developing large and small, domestic solar, wind, as well as other power plants. Simultaneously, investment programmes in renewable energy sources must be widely established, and whole countries should transition to green pro-ecological growth based on the green, emerging economy principle.

Also Read: The Nature and Aims of Archaeology: Find Reading Answers for IELTS Reading Test

Section D of the Passage: IELTS Exam

If these changes are not made over this period, the earth ’s average temperature will rise by another 1 degree Celsius by 2030, after which the greenhouse effect will intensify and the issue of global warming will become an inevitable phenomenon, resulting in widespread catastrophic climate disasters affecting the majority of the Surface of the earth before the end of the decade.

Types of Questions: IELTS Exam Reading Section

In any reading passage in IELTS speaking, you will find the following types of questions

# Matching heading questions

# True or False questions

# Matching paragraph information questions

# Summary completion questions

# Sentence completion questions

# Synonyms and antonyms

# Choosing title questions

# Vocabulary questions

Conclusion

The reading passages in IELTS can be stressful, but if you approach the passages in the right way, you will be able to answer the given questions. The first important thing is practice. Practise as many reading passages as you can, this will increase your pace of reading. Do not waste your time reading the whole passage line by line. Use the skimming technique and read out the important parts.

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Also Read: The Problem of Scarce Resources: An IELTS Topic with Reading Answers

About the Author

Madhurjya Chowdhury

Madhurjya Chowdhury, a web content writer in Ufaber EduTech has a very strong passion for writing and alluring the readers. You can find him writing articles for the betterment of exam aspirants and children. With immense interest in research-based content writing and copywriting, he likes to reach out to more and more people with his creative writing style. On the other side, he is an Electronics and Communication Engineer from LPU, Jalandhar. In his leisure time, he likes to play badminton or read about space discoveries. Apart from this, he is a pro gamer on PC, PS and Mobile gaming platforms.

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