Applicants for IELTS reading must basically read passages and answer the questions that occur within a specific time frame. Since IELTS is taken for higher education as an IELTS academic and for employment and immigration purposes as an IELTS general training, the reading section of IELTS differs somewhat between the two variants. The topics and sources of the sets, sections, or passages are the main differences between academic reading and general training reading in IELTS.
Check out this article, where we have broken down a reading passage for you to understand.
Bakelite Reading Answers
Want to get better at reading passages? Practice your reading skills with this one. Also, learn about the different types of questions that can be asked from a given passage.
IELTS Reading Answers Bakelite Part 1
In 1907, a Belgian physicist based in New York named Leo Hendrick Baekeland invented and patented a groundbreaking new synthetic polymer. His invention, dubbed ‘Bakelite,’ was revolutionary in terms of technology, and it essentially started the new plastics industry.
The word ‘plastic’ is derived from the Greek word plassein, which means ‘to mould.’ Some plastics are extracted from natural materials, while others are semi-synthetic (the product of chemical activity on a natural substance), and even others are fully synthetic (chemically engineered from coal or oil constituents). Some are ‘thermoplastic,’ which ensures that they melt when heated, similar to candle wax, and can then be redefined. Others are ‘thermosetting,’ which means that, like shells, they cannot return to their initial viscous state, and their form is thereby permanently fixed. Bakelite has the distinction of being the first thermosetting plastic made entirely of synthetic materials.
IELTS Reading Answers Bakelite Part 2
In the mid 19th century, a number of semi-synthetic thermoplastic materials were discovered, paving the way for today’s plastics. A variety of factors fueled the production of these early plastics: enormous technical advances in the field of chemistry, along with broader societal shifts, and the tactical need to find suitable replacements for diminishing stocks of ‘luxury’ products like tortoiseshell and ivory.
Baekeland’s involvement in plastics started in 1885 when he began a study into phenolic resins, a category of sticky substances formed when phenol (carbolic acid) reacts with an aldehyde as a young chemistry major in Belgium (a volatile fluid similar to alcohol). Nevertheless, he quickly abandoned the subject, only to return to it decades later. He had recently made his fortune with the discovery of a new photographic paper, and he was a prosperous New Yorker in 1905.
IELTS Reading Answers Bakelite Part 3
Although Baekeland was busy amassing cash, some progress in the field of plastics had been made. The first semi-synthetic thermosetting substance that could be processed on a commercial scale was patented in the years 1899 and 1900. In strictly scientific terms, Baekeland’s main contribution to the field is not so much the discovery of the compound that bears his name, but instead the mechanism by which a process between phenol and formaldehyde could be regulated, allowing industrial production. Baekeland filed his famous patent on this prep on July 13, 1907, the main features of which are still being used today.
The original patent described a three-stage process in which phenol and formaldehyde (derived from wood or coal) were mixed under vacuum in a large egg-shaped boiler. The outcome was Novalak, a resin that when heated became soluble and malleable.
IELTS Reading Answers Bakelite Part 4
After cooling in shallow trays until dried, the resin was split up and coarsely powdered. Fillers, like wood flour, asbestos, or cotton, which improve strength and moisture tolerance, catalysts (substances that increase the rate of reaction between two chemicals without combining them), and Hexa, a composite of ammonia and formaldehyde that supplied the necessary formaldehyde used to form a thermosetting resin, were then added. This paste was then allowed to cool and harden before being ground again. The granulated powder that resulted was raw Bakelite, ready to be transformed into a variety of fabricated pieces. The molten Bakelite was then poured into a hollow mould of the desired shape and exposed to constant heat and pressure, thereby “fitting” its shape for life.
IELTS Reading Answers Bakelite Part 5
The technological specifications of the moulding process influenced the design of Bakelite products, which ranged from earrings to television sets. The shape could not be crafted to be sealed into the mould, making it impossible to remove. Objects could taper into the deepest part of the mould, and if possible, the product was moulded in separate parts, according to general law. Moulds had to be meticulously built to ensure that the molten Bakelite flowed uniformly and perfectly into the cavity. Sharp corners were deemed impractical and discouraged, resulting in the sleek, minimalist style prevalent in the 1930s. The density of the mould walls was also important; thick walls took longer to chill and toughen, which was a consideration that the manufacturer had to take into account in order to allow the most effective use of machinery.
IELTS Reading Answers Bakelite Part 6
Despite being mocked in its early years, Baekeland’s innovation went on to achieve unprecedented fame in the first half of the 20th century. It is known as “the commodity with a thousand uses” in the modern world of global expansion. Bakelite kitchenware was advertised as being germ-free and sterilisable since it was non-porous and heat-resistant. Electrical producers flocked to it for its insulating properties, and shoppers flocked to it for its sparkling variety of colours, relieved that they were no longer limited to the pre-plastic era’s wood tones and drab browns. During the 1950s, it dropped out of favour again, and it was hated and burned in large amounts. It has recently seen a revival, with increased interest for original Bakelite items in the collectors’ industry, and museums, associations, and devoted individuals admiring the style and uniqueness of this groundbreaking material once again.
Bakelite Reading Answers: Question Types
Vocabulary Questions for IELTS Preparation
1. Synonym of “relieved”
2. Synonym of “unprecedented”
3. Antonym of “deemed”
Fill in the Gaps for IELTS Preparation
1. The granulated powder that resulted was ____, ready to be transformed into a variety of fabricated pieces.
Ans. Raw Bakelite
2. The outcome was ____, a resin that when heated became soluble and malleable.
3. ____ had to be meticulously built to ensure that the molten Bakelite flowed uniformly and perfectly into the cavity.
4. Although Baekeland was busy amassing cash, some progress in the field of ____ had been made.
5. The first semi-synthetic thermosetting substance that could be processed on a commercial scale was patented in the years ____.
Ans. 1899 and 1900
6. The word ‘plastic’ is derived from the Greek word ____ .
7. In the mid ____ century, a number of semi-synthetic thermoplastic materials were discovered, paving the way for today’s plastics.
General Question Types for IELTS Preparation
Short Answer Questions
You must exercise extreme caution in this situation! This is a question that wants you to answer the question in the context based on the evidence provided. Furthermore, since you are restricted in terms, you must verify the number of words. There is often a limit on the number of terms that can be used.
Flow Chart Completion Questions
In this sort of question, a table of details with certain gaps will be provided. You must fill the gap with suitable answers from the given reading passage. There is also a data flow diagram where the chart selection process is the same as the graph.
Information Identifying Questions
These are the sort of questions that allow you to determine if the information provided is correct or incorrect. This type of question assesses the ability to clearly interpret what the text is saying.
Multiple Choice Questions
These are the types of questions that need you to select the correct answer from the options provided in A B C D. This type of question assesses the ability to comprehend detailed information in capital letters.
Sentence Completion Questions
An unfinished sentence can be found in the form of a question. You must fill in the blanks with words from the passage. As a result, in order to find the right answer, you must easily map the incomplete text to a particular location inside the text.
Matching Sentence Endings
This is a very simple question type. A line in the text is chosen to represent a portion of a sentence. All you have to do is search the expression from which it was taken and finish it, and you’ll have your right answer!
You have read a passage from a previous IELTS exam in this article. By reading through the passage given in this article, you would be able to understand how to address the reading questions. You will get an understanding of how to overcome the questions by following the reading responses. To pass the reading test with a high band score, you must have strong brainstorming ability as well as quick reading skills. Before taking the main test, practise for a lot of sample passages.
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